Transit & Station Areas
A transit stop alone will not spur mixed-use station area development.
TOD (Transit-Oriented Development) requires complete neighborhoods in which land uses are located according to market fundamentals and are integrated with pedestrian, bicycle, auto and transit networks. In a TOD, housing, shopping and employment are concentrated within ¼ mile of the transit station along a network of walkable and bikable streets.
TOD potential is often overlooked when agencies plan transit networks.
High levels of transit ridership depend on the development of supportive land use and circulation around the station. The potential for supportive development can be maximized or precluded by the route of the transit line and the locations of stations.
Not all line options and station locations are equal and each may accomplish a different objective, such as lower construction cost or greater TOD potential. To maximize the public’s return on transit investment and increase transit ridership, TOD potential should be a primary consideration in all stages of transit system planning.
Infill TOD can be successful if a robust design plan addresses land use and scale compatibility with the existing neighborhood.
Successful infill TOD occurs when transit-supportive land uses and densities are constructed on undeveloped or underutilized parcels without adverse impacts to existing stable development. Infill TOD development sites can provide:
- Existing public infrastructure, services and amenities that support and encourage new development.
- Existing population that provides immediate transit ridership.
- New transit-supportive growth rather than auto-dependant growth focused at the periphery.
The most essential element for a greenfield TOD is a grid of complete streets.
Greenfield TOD occurs when transit-supportive land uses, densities and a grid of streets are constructed in a previously undeveloped area. Greenfield sites are typically located on the suburban fringe of a metropolitan region. In some instances, large reuse sites located within urban areas are also considered greenfield sites. Opportunities associated with greenfield TOD development include the potential to:
- Effectively implement ideal TOD land uses and street and block configurations around transit stations
- Provide medium-and high-density land uses, thus increasing the potential for higher long-term transit ridership
- Reduce compatibility concerns between existing conditions and TOD land uses, scale and character